Das Vereinigte Königreich Großbritannien besteht aus den Territorien England, Wales, Nordirland und Schottland. Die Hauptstadt Schottlands ist Edinburgh. Schottland (englisch/Scots Scotland [ˈskɔtlənd], schottisch-gälisch Alba [ ˈaləpə] Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören, lateinisch Caledonia) ist ein weitgehend. Schottland hat nur etwas über fünf Millionen Einwohner. Wie kann man da Und das hilft uns, die schottische Leistung besser zu verstehen. Die Daten über.
Willkommen in SchottlandSchottland ist aber auch Glasgow und Edinburgh. Beide Städte sind voller Gegensätze und Charme und überraschen den Besucher damit, dass sie nicht ihrem. Die ultimative Rundreise durch die schottischen Highlands. Nur wenige Länder eignen sich für eine Autorundreise so gut, wie Schottland: Wild wuchernde Natur,. Schottland - die "grüne Lunge" Großbritanniens hat weit mehr zu bieten als Whisky, Kilt und Dudelsack. Entdecken Sie die einsamen Weiten der Hochlandes.
Schottland Coronavirus Advice VideoSchottland Unabhängigkeit - Geschichte \u0026 Zukunft
Schottland hat der EuGH das Streaming von Schottland fr illegal erklrt? - Rolls-RoyceEs ist in Schottland fast überall möglich, mit Kreditkarten zu bezahlen. Schottland (englisch/Scots Scotland [ˈskɔtlənd], schottisch-gälisch Alba [ ˈaləpə] Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören, lateinisch Caledonia) ist ein weitgehend. Willkommen in Schottland! Entdecken Sie fantastische Unternehmungen, Urlaubsinspirationen, lokale Tips & mehr vom offiziellen schottischen. Die ultimative Rundreise durch die schottischen Highlands. Nur wenige Länder eignen sich für eine Autorundreise so gut, wie Schottland: Wild wuchernde Natur,. Schottland ist eines der vier Länder des Vereinigten Königreich. Die Hauptstadt Schottlands ist Edinburgh. == Regionen =.
Schottland liggt in den Noorden vun dat Eiland Grootbritannien un grenzt in den Süden an England. Dor leevt hüdigendags 5.
Meist all Schotten snackt Engelsch. Düsse Lüde leevt besunners up de westlichen Eilannen un överhaupt in de westlichen Delen vun dat Land.
För de Verwalten in Schottland hüdigendags updeelt in 32 council areas. Vun af an bit weer dat Land updeelt in Regionen.
Man ganz begäng is ok noch de ole Indelen in de Graafschappen. Kiek bi Historie vun Schottland. In de Noordsee winnt Schottland besunners Eerdööl.
Bavenhen gifft dat noch Fischeree un Schaaptucht. Jetzt anmelden. STÄDTE-URLAUB MIT ABSTECHER AUFS LAND. Alle Reisen ansehen. Hilfreiche Informationen Sie suchen hilfreiche Informationen und Hinweise zu Schottlandreisen?
Reisen nach Schottland Reisen nach Schottland nach dem Brexit Praktische Informationen iKnow Community VisitScotland auf YouTube VisitScotland-Blog.
Auch die Gerichts- und vielfach die Verwaltungsorganisation unterscheidet sich von der englischen. Als Teile des College of Justice sind der Court of Session das oberste Zivil- und der High Court of Justiciary das oberste Strafgericht.
Der Lord Advocate ist der Chefjustiziar der schottischen Exekutive und der Krone in Schottland für Zivil- und Strafrecht. In Schottland ist die Verwaltung seit landesweit einstufig gegliedert.
Es bestehen 32 Council Areas , darunter drei Inselbezirke. Aberdeen , Dundee , Edinburgh , Glasgow , Inverness , Perth und Stirling besitzen den Status einer City.
Die Eigenständigkeit des teilweise auf der Rezeption des römischen Rechts basierenden schottischen Rechtssystems blieb nach dem Act of Union erhalten, auch wenn seit der Einfluss des englischen Rechts durch die Gesetzgebung des Parlaments und die Rechtsprechung des House of Lords beständig wuchs.
Impulse erhielt das schottische Recht in der neueren Zeit durch den Einfluss des Europarechts und die Konstitution des Schottischen Parlaments.
Die Police Service of Scotland schott. Seirbheis Phoilis na h-Alba , dt. Polizeidienst von Schottland , kurz Police Scotland, ist die nationale Polizei von Schottland.
Sie wurde im Jahr mit dem Zusammenschluss von acht regionalen Polizeikräften in Schottland sowie der Scottish Police Services Authority dt. Obwohl sie die Kräfte nicht formell absorbierte, führte die Fusion auch zur Auflösung der Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland.
Der Chief Constable ist verantwortlich für die Scottish Police Authority dt. Schottland wird auch von der Ministry of Defence Police dt.
Die National Crime Agency hat auch einige Gerichtsbarkeiten in Schottland. Aufgrund der Übertragung der Befugnisse über die Eisenbahnpolizei gab die schottische Regierung im Jahre die Pläne zur Verschmelzung der schottischen Elemente der British Transport Police in die Police Scotland bekannt.
Die schottische Regierung unter Alex Salmond SNP , die sich seit der Wahl auf eine absolute Mehrheit im Parlament stützen kann, hatte angekündigt, während der laufenden Legislaturperiode eine Abstimmung zur Unabhängigkeit durchzuführen.
Oktober einigten sich der britische Premier David Cameron und der schottische Erste Minister Alex Salmond auf einen Zeitpunkt und Eckpunkte des Referendums.
Am Dieser sah den schottischen Unabhängigkeitstag für den März vor. Bis zu diesem Datum sollte eine geschriebene schottische Verfassung vorliegen.
Nach dem amtlichen Endergebnis der Abstimmung, das am Morgen des Juni fand das Referendum zum Austritt des Vereinigten Königreichs aus der Europäischen Union statt, wobei die Mehrheit für das Verlassen der Europäischen Union stimmte.
Während in den Landesteilen England und Wales insgesamt mehrheitlich für einen Austritt gestimmt wurde, stimmten die Mehrheiten der Landesteile Schottland und Nordirland für einen Verbleib in der Europäischen Union.
April verkündete Nicola Sturgeon, eine weitere Abstimmung vornehmen lassen und ein Gesetz dazu vorbereiten zu wollen, da ein Verbleib im Vereinigten Königreich nun unweigerlich den Austritt aus der Europäischen Union zur Folge haben würde.
Das Zentrum der Erdölförderung aus der Nordsee ist Aberdeen. Hier hat das Ölgeschäft die Fischerei seit den er Jahren abgelöst. Pfund ; die USA importierten Scotch Whisky im Wert von 1,04 Mrd.
Das zweitbedeutendste exportierte britische Lebensmittel war Schokolade im Wert von 0,75 Milliarden Pfund. Es folgten Wasserkraftwerke mit GWh, Biomasse mit GWh, Deponiegas mit GWh und Photovoltaik mit GWh, ein kleiner Anteil entfiel auch auf Meeresenergie und andere erneuerbare Energien.
Besonders die Windenergie hat für die Zukunft weiterhin hohe Wachstumschancen. Die schottische Regierung sieht im Ausbau der Windenergie mit einem geschätzten Investitionsvolumen von bis zu 30 Mrd.
Pfund ein entscheidendes Kriterium für wirtschaftliches Wachstum und die Entstehung von bis zu Der sogenannte Kreativsektor Creative industry , bestehend aus Literatur, Film, Mode, Software und Computerspielen, trug mit einem Umsatz von 4,8 Milliarden Pfund zur schottischen Wirtschaftsleistung bei.
Diese Branchen beschäftigten rund Nationale Zeitungen wie der Daily Record , The Herald und The Scotsman werden alle in Schottland produziert.
Wichtige regionale Tageszeitungen sind die Evening News in Edinburgh, The Courier aus Dundee im Osten und The Press and Journal , das Aberdeen und den Norden bedient.
Schottland ist auf dem Celtic Media Festival vertreten, das Film und Fernsehen aus den keltischen Ländern präsentiert. Schottische Teilnehmer haben seit Beginn des Festivals im Jahre viele Preise gewonnen.
Im Fernsehen in Schottland werden weitgehend die gleichen Sendungen wie im Vereinigten Königreich gezeigt. Der nationale Sender ist aber BBC Scotland , ein konstituierender Teil der British Broadcasting Corporation , den öffentlich finanzierten Sender des Vereinigten Königreichs.
Es laufen drei nationale Fernsehsender, und die nationalen Radiosender, BBC Radio Scotland und BBC Radio nan Gaidheal , unter anderem.
Schottland hat auch einige Sender in der gälischen Sprache. BBC Alba ist der nationale Gälisch-sprachige Fernsehkanal. Der wichtigste schottische kommerzielle Fernsehsender ist STV.
Die jährlichen Erlöse der Landwirtschaft betrugen im Jahr Millionen Pfund. Mehr als drei Viertel der Fläche Schottlands werden für die Landwirtschaft in Form von Ackerbau und Weidewirtschaft genutzt.
Am meisten angebaut werden Gerste, Weizen, Hafer und Kartoffeln, daneben Gemüse und Obst. Die Milchwirtschaft hat eine untergeordnete Bedeutung.
Sie geht auf das Jahrhundert zurück, als sich schottische Adlige im Zuge der Reformation das Land der Auld Kirk aneigneten. Seitdem haben sich die Besitzverhältnisse im Wesentlichen erhalten.
Der Tourismus-Sektor ist für die schottische Wirtschaft von entscheidender Bedeutung. Die jüngsten Zahlen zeigen, dass die Gesamtausgaben für Übernachtungen und Tagesbesucher in Schottland im Jahr rund 8,9 Milliarden Pfund betrugen — dies umfasste Ausgaben von Übernachtungsgästen von 4,9 Milliarden Pfund und Ausgaben von Tagesbesuchern von 3,9 Milliarden Pfund.
Im Jahr zog Schottland über 14,6 Millionen Besucher an. Die Einnahmen aus dem Tourismus betragen rund 12 Milliarden Pfund an Wirtschaftstätigkeit und tragen rund 6 Milliarden Pfund zum schottischen Bruttoinlandsprodukt in den Grundpreisen bei.
Der Tourismus-Sektor unterhält etwa Die meisten ausländischen Besucher kommen aus den Vereinigten Staaten , Deutschland , Frankreich , Australien , Niederlande und Kanada.
Schottland wird allgemein als sauberes und relativ unberührtes Reiseland angesehen, mit bildschönen Landschaften, einer langen und komplexen Geschichte , verbunden mit tausenden historischen Stätten und Sehenswürdigkeiten , darunter prähistorische Steinkreise , Megalithen und Grabkammern sowie verschiedene Relikte aus der Bronze- , Eisen- und Steinzeit.
Ferner gibt es viele historische Schlösser, Gebäude, Schlachtfelder, Ruinen und Museen. Viele Menschen fühlen sich von der schottischen Kultur angezogen.
But Edward wanted to invade Scotland, so he chose the weaker candidate, who was John Balliol. He had the strongest claim to the throne, and became king on 30 November Robert Bruce decided to accept this decision his grandson and namesake later took the throne as Robert I.
Over the next few years, Edward I kept trying to undermine both the authority of King John and the independence of Scotland. In , John, on the recommendation of his chief councillors, entered into an alliance with France.
This was the beginning of the Auld Alliance. In , Edward invaded Scotland. He removed King John from power, and put him in jail. The following year William Wallace and Andrew de Moray raised an army from the southern and northern parts of the country to fight the English.
Under their joint leadership, an English army was defeated at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. For a short time Wallace ruled Scotland in the name of John Balliol as Guardian of the realm.
Edward came north in person and defeated Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk in Wallace escaped but resigned as Guardian of Scotland. John Comyn and Robert the Bruce were put in his place.
In Wallace was captured by the English, who executed him for treason. Wallace claimed he did not commit treason as he was not loyal to England.
In February Robert Bruce murdered John Comyn, a leading rival, in a church. Bruce went on to take the crown, but Edward's army overran the country yet again after defeating Bruce's small army at the Battle of Methven.
Despite the excommunication of Bruce and his followers by Pope Clement V , his support slowly strengthened; and by , with the help of leading nobles such as Sir James Douglas and the Earl of Moray , only the castles at Bothwell and Stirling were still under English control.
Edward I died in Carlisle in His heir, Edward II , moved an army north to break the siege of Stirling Castle and again take control. Robert defeated that army at the Battle of Bannockburn in , securing temporary independence.
In , a letter to the Pope from the nobles of Scotland the Declaration of Arbroath went part of the way towards convincing Pope John XXII to overturn the earlier excommunication and cancel the various acts of submission by Scottish kings to English ones so that Scotland's independence could be recognised by other European countries.
In , the first full Parliament of Scotland met. The parliament was made from an earlier council of nobility and clergy around , but in representatives of the burghs—the burgh commissioners—joined them to form the Three Estates.
In , Edward III signed the Treaty of Northampton which declared Scottish independence under the rule of Robert the Bruce.
Four years after Robert's death in , England invaded Scotland yet again, looking to put the "Rightful King"— Edward Balliol , son of John Balliol—to the Scottish throne, starting the Second War of Independence.
In the face of tough Scottish resistance, led by Sir Andrew Murray , attempts to secure Balliol on the throne failed.
Edward III lost interest in Balliol after the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with France. In David II , King Robert's son and heir, was able to return from temporary exile in France.
Balliol finally resigned his empty claim to the throne to Edward in , before retiring to Yorkshire, where he died in Most of the Scottish islands were ruled by the Norse and then by Norwegians and Danes for over four hundred years.
This includes the Hebrides to the west and Orkney and Shetland to the north. The islands still have a culture of their own.
St Kilda , Heart of Neolithic Orkney and Skara Brae are all World Heritage Sites , as are the Antonine Wall and New Lanark on the mainland.
In , Queen Elizabeth I of England died and, because she did not have any children, James VI of Scotland son of Mary, Queen of Scots also became King James I of England.
In , Scotland and England were joined in the Act of Union to make one big Kingdom, the Kingdom of Great Britain.
When Ireland joined in , the United Kingdom was created. In , a majority of voters in Scotland chose to have their own Scottish Parliament , which was set up in The shipbuilding industry expanded by a third and expected renewed prosperity, but instead, a serious depression hit the economy by and it did not fully recover until The interwar years were marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high unemployment.
Thoughtful Scots pondered their declension, as the main social indicators such as poor health, bad housing, and long-term mass unemployment, pointed to terminal social and economic stagnation at best, or even a downward spiral.
Service abroad on behalf of the Empire lost its allure to ambitious young people, who left Scotland permanently. The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy industry and mining was a central problem, and no one offered workable solutions.
The despair reflected what Finlay describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived during the Second World War.
During the Second World War, Scotland was targeted by Nazi Germany largely due to its factories, shipyards, and coal mines. Perhaps Scotland's most unusual wartime episode occurred in when Rudolf Hess flew to Renfrewshire, possibly intending to broker a peace deal through the Duke of Hamilton.
Pintsch delivered the letter to Hitler at the Berghof around noon on 11 May. As in World War I, Scapa Flow in Orkney served as an important Royal Navy base.
Attacks on Scapa Flow and Rosyth gave RAF fighters their first successes downing bombers in the Firth of Forth and East Lothian. Scottish industry came out of the depression slump by a dramatic expansion of its industrial activity, absorbing unemployed men and many women as well.
The shipyards were the centre of more activity, but many smaller industries produced the machinery needed by the British bombers, tanks and warships.
Increased income, and the more equal distribution of food, obtained through a tight rationing system, dramatically improved the health and nutrition.
After , Scotland's economic situation worsened due to overseas competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes. Economic factors contributing to this recovery included a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturing , see Silicon Glen ,  and the North Sea oil and gas industry.
The Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood opened in October after lengthy construction delays and running over budget.
However, the pro- independence Scottish National Party led by Alex Salmond achieved an overall majority in the election , winning 69 of the seats available.
The mainland of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe.
The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of England  and the Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway.
The geographical centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch. The whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation.
From a geological perspective, the country has three main sub-divisions. The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault , which runs from Arran to Stonehaven.
This part of Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian , which were uplifted during the later Caledonian orogeny.
It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, remnants of which formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and Skye Cuillins.
A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth coast.
The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over islands divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides.
There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. Some parts of the coastline consist of machair , a low-lying dune pasture land.
The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are found.
This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano.
This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view.
They lie south of a second fault line the Southern Uplands fault that runs from Girvan to Dunbar. The climate of most of Scotland is temperate and oceanic , and tends to be very changeable.
The highest temperature recorded was The west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea.
Tiree , in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than hours of sunshine in May Braemar has an average of 59 snow days per year,  while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.
Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north-west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the lynx, brown bear, wolf, elk and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times.
There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets. On the high mountain tops, species including ptarmigan , mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months.
Today, much of the remaining native Caledonian Forest lies within the Cairngorms National Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across Scotland.
On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll , these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history.
The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland as well as moorland and tundra species.
However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and field sport activities like deer stalking and driven grouse shooting impacts the distribution of indigenous plants and animals.
The population of Scotland at the Census was 5,, This rose to 5,,, the highest ever, at the Census. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, the largest city is Glasgow, which has just over , inhabitants.
The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1. Scotland's only major city outside the Central Belt is Aberdeen.
In general, only the more accessible and larger islands remain inhabited. Currently, fewer than 90 remain inhabited. The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry.
They are East Kilbride , Glenrothes , Cumbernauld , Livingston , and Irvine. Immigration since World War II has given Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dundee small South Asian communities.
Scotland has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots , and Scottish Gaelic. There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland.
In the Census, 9. In August , the Scottish population reached an all-time high of 5. In , 43, people moved from Wales, Northern Ireland or England to live in Scotland.
The total fertility rate TFR in Scotland is below the replacement rate of 2. The majority of births are to unmarried women Life expectancy for those born in Scotland between and is Since it has had a Presbyterian system of church government and enjoys independence from the state.
Other Christian denominations in Scotland include the Free Church of Scotland , and various other Presbyterian offshoots. Scotland's third largest church is the Scottish Episcopal Church.
There are an estimated 75, Muslims in Scotland about 1. The head of state of the United Kingdom is the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II since The monarchy of the United Kingdom continues to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to pre-union Scotland, including: the Royal Standard of Scotland , the Royal coat of arms used in Scotland together with its associated Royal Standard , royal titles including that of Duke of Rothesay , certain Great Officers of State , the chivalric Order of the Thistle and, since , reinstating a ceremonial role for the Crown of Scotland after a year hiatus.
MacCormick v Lord Advocate was a legal action was brought in Scotland's Court of Session by the Scottish Covenant Association to contest the right of the Queen to entitle herself "Elizabeth II" within Scotland, but the Crown won the appeal against the case's dismissal, since as royal titulature was legislated for by the Royal Titles Act and a matter of royal prerogative.
Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom, as well as representation in the British Parliament.
Executive and legislative powers respectively have been devolved to the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh since The British Parliament retains control over reserved matters specified in the Scotland Act , including taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting.
It initially had only a limited power to vary income tax ,  but powers over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the Scotland Acts of and The Scottish Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to the British Parliament by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered more appropriate for a certain issue.
The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the UK.
For instance, university education and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK.
Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places. The Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature with members MSPs : 73 of them represent individual constituencies and are elected on a first-past-the-post system; the other 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system.
MSPs normally serve for a five-year period. Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of the devolved government.
The first minister is also the political leader of Scotland. The Scottish Government also comprises the deputy first minister , currently John Swinney MSP, who deputises for the first minister during a period of absence of overseas visits.
Alongside the deputy first minister's requirements as Deputy, the minister also has a cabinet ministerial responsibility.
Swinney is also currently Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills. There are also twelve other ministers, who work alongside the cabinet secretaries in their appointed areas.
In the election , the Scottish National Party SNP won 63 of the seats available. Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies.
In the general election , the SNP won 48 of the 59 seats. The Scotland Office represents the British government in Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the government.
The relationships between the central government of the UK and devolved governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are based on the extra-statutory principles and agreements with the main elements being set out in a Memorandum of Understanding between the British government and the devolved governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The MOU lays emphasis on the principles of good communication, consultation and co-operation. Since devolution in , Scotland has devolved stronger working relations across the two other devolved governments, the Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive.
Whilst there are no formal concordats between the Scottish Government, Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive, ministers from each devolved government meet at various points throughout the year at various events such as the British-Irish Council and also meet to discuss matters and issues that are devolved to each government.
The Scottish Government considers the successful re-establishment of the Plenary, and establishment of the Domestic fora to be important facets of the relationship with the British Government and the other devolved administrations.
In the aftermath of the United Kingdom's decision to withdraw from the European Union in , the Scottish Government has called for there to be a joint approach from each of the devolved governments.
In early , the devolved governments met to discuss Brexit and agree on Brexit strategies from each devolved government  which lead for Theresa May to issue a statement that claims that the devolved governments will not have a central role or decision making process in the Brexit process, but that the central government plans to "fully engage" Scotland in talks alongside the governments of Wales and Northern Ireland.
Whilst foreign policy remains a reserved matter,  the Scottish Government still has the power and ability to strengthen and develop Scotland, the economy and Scottish interests on the world stage and encourage foreign businesses, international devolved, regional and central governments to invest in Scotland.
Whilst an independent sovereign nation, Scotland had a close "special relationship" with France known then as the Kingdom of France.
In , both Scotland and France signed what became known as the Auld Alliance in Paris , which acted as a military and diplomatic alliance between English invasion and expansion.
During the G8 Summit in , the first minister Jack McConnell welcomed each head of government of the G8 nations to the country's Glasgow Prestwick Airport  on behalf of then prime minister Tony Blair.
At the same time, McConnell and the then Scottish Executive pioneered the way forward to launch what would become the Scotland Malawi Partnership which co-ordinates Scottish activities to strengthen existing links with Malawi.
McConnell, speaking at the end, highlighted that the visit by Putin was a "post-devolution" step towards "Scotland regaining its international identity".
Under the Salmond administration, Scotland's trade and investment deals with countries such as China   and Canada, where Salmond established the Canada Plan — which aimed to strengthen "the important historical, cultural and economic links" between both Canada and Scotland.
A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main British political parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history.
A previous Labour leader, John Smith , described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people". The Scottish National Party SNP , which supports Scottish independence , was first elected to form the Scottish Government in The new government established a " National Conversation " on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism , or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.
In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament created a commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies.
In August the SNP proposed a bill to hold a referendum on independence in November Opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat.
Following the European Union Referendum Act , the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum was held on 23 June on Britain's membership of the European Union.
A majority in the United Kingdom voted to withdraw from the EU, whilst a majority within Scotland voted to remain a member.
The first minister, Nicola Sturgeon, announced the following day that as a result a new independence referendum was "highly likely". At Holyrood, Sturgeon's governing SNP continues to campaign for such a referendum; in December a formal request for the powers to hold one under Section 30 of the Scotland Act was submitted.
Historical subdivisions of Scotland included the mormaerdom , stewartry , earldom , burgh , parish , county and regions and districts.
Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose.
In local government, there have been 32 single-tier council areas since ,  whose councils are responsible for the provision of all local government services.
Decisions are made by councillors who are elected at local elections every five years. The head of each council is usually the Lord Provost alongside the Leader of the council,  with a Chief Executive being appointed as director of the council area.
In the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United Kingdom, there are 59 constituencies.
Until , the Scottish fire brigades and police forces were based on a system of regions introduced in For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration.
City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent. Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law ,  combining features of both uncodified civil law , dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis , and common law with medieval sources.
The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales.
Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the s. Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: civil, criminal and heraldic.
The supreme civil court is the Court of Session , although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom or before 1 October , the House of Lords.
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The Court of Session is housed at Parliament House , in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland with the High Court of Justiciary and the Supreme Court of Appeal currently located at the Lawnmarket.
The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most cases. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from to The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.
For three centuries the Scots legal system was unique for being the only national legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament in , which legislates for Scotland.
Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: "guilty", "not guilty" and " not proven ".
There is, however, the possibility of a retrial where new evidence emerges at a later date that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt to pervert the course of justice — see the provisions of the Double Jeopardy Scotland Act Many laws differ between Scotland and the other parts of the United Kingdom, and many terms differ for certain legal concepts.
Manslaughter , in England and Wales, is broadly similar to culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson is called wilful fire raising. Indeed, some acts considered crimes in England and Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland.
Procedure also differs. Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries.
The Scottish Prison Service SPS manages the prisons in Scotland, which collectively house over 8, prisoners. Health care in Scotland is mainly provided by NHS Scotland , Scotland's public health care system.
This was founded by the National Health Service Scotland Act later repealed by the National Health Service Scotland Act that took effect on 5 July to coincide with the launch of the NHS in England and Wales.
However, even prior to , half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by state-funded health care, provided by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service.
The current Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport is Jeane Freeman  and the Director-General DG Health and chief executive, NHS Scotland is Paul Gray.
In , the NHS in Scotland had around , staff including more than 47, nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3, consultants. There are also more than 12, doctors, family practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists, opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for fees and allowances.
Scotland has a Western-style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of the UK and the wider world.
Traditionally, the Scottish economy was dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries.
Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the s, especially in the north-east of Scotland.
De-industrialisation during the s and s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service -oriented economy.
Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group owners of HBOS ; the Government-owned Royal Bank of Scotland and Standard Life.
Edinburgh was ranked 15th in the list of world financial centres in , but fell to 37th in , following damage to its reputation,  and in was ranked 56th out of Whisky is one of Scotland's more known goods of economic activity.
Scotland was one of the industrial powerhouses of Europe from the time of the Industrial Revolution onwards, being a world leader in manufacturing.
This has, however, been combined with a rise in the service sector of the economy, which has grown to be the largest sector in Scotland.
Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks issue Sterling banknotes : the Bank of Scotland , the Royal Bank of Scotland and the Clydesdale Bank.
The issuing of banknotes by retail banks in Scotland is subject to the Banking Act , which repealed all earlier legislation under which banknote issuance was regulated, and the Scottish and Northern Ireland Banknote Regulations Scotland had a long military tradition predating the Treaty of Union with England; the Scots Army and Royal Scots Navy were with the exception of the Atholl Highlanders , Europe's only legal private army merged with their English counterparts to form the Royal Navy and the British Army , which together form part of the British Armed Forces.
Numerous Scottish regiments have at various times existed in the British Army. Distinctively Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Scots Guards , the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and the Scottish Regiment RLC , an Army Reserve regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps.
In , as a result of the Delivering Security in a Changing World white paper , the Scottish infantry regiments in the Scottish Division were amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland.The deposed Jacobite Stuart claimants had remained popular in the Highlands and north-east, particularly amongst non- Presbyteriansincluding Roman Catholics and Daniel Booko Protestants. Timeline Prehistoric Roman times Middle Ages Early Middle Ages Kingdom High Middle Ages Davidian Revolution Wars of Independence Late Middle Ages Renaissance Early modern Reformation Colonisation of the Americas Glorious Revolution Steam Namen of Union Jacobitism Enlightenment Lowland Clearances Highland Clearances Industrial Revolution Romanticism Modern. A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Schottland coast. Opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat.