Von Dirk Fuhrig. Beitrag hören Podcast abonnieren. Der Schriftsteller Albert Camus im Jahr (picture-alliance/United Archives/). Albert Camus wurde am 7. November in ärmlichen Verhältnissen als Sohn einer Spanierin und eines Elsässers in Mondovi, Algerien, geboren. Von Albert Camus war ein französischer Schriftsteller, Philosoph und Religionskritiker. erhielt er für sein publizistisches Gesamtwerk den Nobelpreis für Literatur. Camus gilt als einer der bekanntesten und bedeutendsten französischen Autoren des.
Albert CamusLange Nacht über Jean-Paul Sartre und Albert CamusFremd in der Welt und frei im Leben. Während der NS-Zensur in Paris der 40er-Jahre. Albert Camus war ein französischer Schriftsteller, Philosoph und Religionskritiker. erhielt er für sein publizistisches Gesamtwerk den Nobelpreis für Literatur. Camus gilt als einer der bekanntesten und bedeutendsten französischen Autoren des. Albert Camus wurde am 7. November in ärmlichen Verhältnissen als Sohn einer Spanierin und eines Elsässers in Mondovi, Algerien, geboren. Von
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Yet these experiences are presented as the solution to a philosophical problem, namely finding the meaning of life in the face of death.
They appear alongside, and reveal themselves to be rooted in, his first extended meditation on ultimate questions. In these essays, Camus sets two attitudes in opposition.
The first is what he regards as religion-based fears. Against this conventional Christian perspective Camus asserts what he regards as self-evident facts: that we must die and there is nothing beyond this life.
Without mentioning it, Camus draws a conclusion from these facts, namely that the soul is not immortal. Here, as elsewhere in his philosophical writing, he commends to his readers to face a discomforting reality squarely and without flinching, but he does not feel compelled to present reasons or evidence.
If not with religion, where then does wisdom lie? There is nothing but this world, this life, the immediacy of the present.
Hope is the error Camus wishes to avoid. But why, we may ask, is hope an evil? Nietzsche explains that humans have come to see hope as their greatest good, while Zeus, knowing better, has meant it as the greatest source of trouble.
For Camus, following this reading of Nietzsche closely, the conventional solution is in fact the problem: hope is disastrous for humans inasmuch as it leads them to minimize the value of this life except as preparation for a life beyond.
If religious hope is based on the mistaken belief that death, in the sense of utter and total extinction body and soul, is not inevitable, it leads us down a blind alley.
Worse, because it teaches us to look away from life toward something to come afterwards, such religious hope kills a part of us, for example, the realistic attitude we need to confront the vicissitudes of life.
But what then is the appropriate path? The young Camus is neither a skeptic nor a relativist here. His discussion rests on the self-evidence of sensuous experience.
He advocates precisely what he takes Christianity to abjure: living a life of the senses, intensely, here and now, in the present.
This entails, first, abandoning all hope for an afterlife, indeed rejecting thinking about it. Only if we accept that Nietzsche is right, that God is dead and there is only nothingness after we die, will we then fully experience—feel, taste, touch, see, and smell—the joys of our bodies and the physical world.
Thus the sensuous and lyrical side of these essays, their evocative character, is central to the argument. Or rather, because Camus is promoting intense, joyous, physical experience as opposed to a self-abnegating religious life, rather than developing an argument he asserts that these experiences are the right response.
But they suggest what philosophy is for Camus and how he conceives its relationship to literary expression. The intense and glistening present tells us that we can fully experience and appreciate life only on the condition that we no longer try to avoid our ultimate and absolute death.
After completing Nuptials , Camus began to work on a planned triptych on the Absurd: a novel, which became The Stranger , a philosophical essay, eventually titled The Myth of Sisyphus , and a play, Caligula.
These were completed and sent off from Algeria to the Paris publisher in September Although Camus would have preferred to see them appear together, even in a single volume, the publisher for both commercial reasons and because of the paper shortage caused by war and occupation, released The Stranger in June and The Myth of Sisyphus in October.
Camus kept working on the play, which finally appeared in book form two years later Lottman, — Deciding whether or not life is worth living is to answer the fundamental question in philosophy.
For him, it seems clear that the primary result of philosophy is action, not comprehension. Camus sees this question of suicide as a natural response to an underlying premise, namely that life is absurd in a variety of ways.
As we have seen, both the presence and absence of life i. But Camus also thinks it absurd to try to know, understand, or explain the world, for he sees the attempt to gain rational knowledge as futile.
Accepting absurdity as the mood of the times, he asks above all whether and how to live in the face of it. But he does not argue this question either, and rather chooses to demonstrate the attitude towards life that would deter suicide.
In other words, the main concern of the book is to sketch ways of living our lives so as to make them worth living despite their being meaningless.
But if this temptation precedes what is usually considered philosophical reasoning, how to answer it? In order to get to the bottom of things while avoiding arguing for the truth of his statements, he depicts, enumerates, and illustrates.
Appealing to common experience, he tries to render the flavor of the absurd with images, metaphors, and anecdotes that capture the experiential level he regards as lying prior to philosophy.
As this continues, one slowly becomes fully conscious and senses the absurd. Camus goes on to sketch other experiences of absurdity, until he arrives at death.
Our efforts to understand them lead nowhere. Avi Sagi suggests that in claiming this Camus is not speaking as an irrationalist—which is, after all, how he regards the existentialists—but as someone trying to rationally understand the limits of reason Sagi , 59— For Camus the problem is that by demanding meaning, order, and unity, we seek to go beyond those limits and pursue the impossible.
We will never understand, and we will die despite all our efforts. There are two obvious responses to our frustrations: suicide and hope.
By hope Camus means just what he described in Nuptials , the religion-inspired effort to imagine and live for a life beyond this life. What is the Camusean alternative to suicide or hope?
In short, he recommends a life without consolation, but instead one characterized by lucidity and by acute consciousness of and rebellion against its mortality and its limits.
At the same time Camus argues against the specific philosophical current with which Nietzsche is often linked as a precursor, and to which he himself is closest—existentialism.
The Myth of Sisyphus is explicitly written against existentialists such as Shestov, Kierkegaard, Jaspers, and Heidegger, as well as against the phenomenology of Husserl.
Camus shares their starting point, which he regards as the fact that they all somehow testify to the absurdity of the human condition.
In the process, the absurdity of Nausea becomes the contingency of Being and Nothingness , the fact that humans and things are simply there with no explanation or reason.
Having rooted human existence in such contingency, Sartre goes on to describe other fundamental structures of existence, core human projects, and characteristic patterns of behavior, including freedom and bad faith, all of which arise on this basis.
For Sartre absurdity is obviously a fundamental ontological property of existence itself, frustrating us but not restricting our understanding.
For Camus, on the other hand, absurdity is not a property of existence as such, but is an essential feature of our relationship with the world.
Camus, on the contrary, builds an entire worldview on his central assumption that absurdity is an unsurpassable relationship between humans and their world Aronson As discussed above, Camus views the world as irrational, which means that it is not understandable through reason.
According to Camus, each existentialist writer betrayed his initial insight by seeking to appeal to something beyond the limits of the human condition, by turning to the transcendent.
And yet even if we avoid what Camus describes as such escapist efforts and continue to live without irrational appeals, the desire to do so is built into our consciousness and thus our humanity.
But it is urgent to not succumb to these impulses and to instead accept absurdity. These philosophers, he insists, refuse to accept the conclusions that follow from their own premises.
Kierkegaard, for example, strongly senses the absurd. But rather than respecting it as the inevitable human ailment, he seeks to be cured of it by making it an attribute of a God who he then embraces.
Along with Sartre, Camus praises the early Husserlian notion of intentionality. The Myth of Sisyphus finds the answer by abandoning the terrain of philosophy altogether.
After the dense and highly self-conscious earlier chapters, these pages condense the entire line of thought into a vivid image.
For Camus, Sisyphus reminds us that we cannot help seeking to understand the reality that transcends our intelligence, striving to grasp more than our limited and practical scientific understanding allows, and wishing to live without dying.
Like Sisyphus, we are our fate, and our frustration is our very life: we can never escape it. But there is more. After the rock comes tumbling down, confirming the ultimate futility of his project, Sisyphus trudges after it once again.
At each of those moments when he leaves the heights and gradually sinks towards the lairs of the gods, he is superior to his fate. This is how a life without ultimate meaning can be made worth living.
Sisyphus accepts and embraces living with death without the possibility of appealing to God. His fate belongs to him. He has lived his existence from one moment to the next and without much awareness, but at his trial and while awaiting execution he becomes like Sisyphus, fully conscious of himself and his terrible fate.
Lui crede di essere un artista. Semplicemente mi sono sentito all'improvviso un bisogno di impossibile. Adesso lo so.
Lo straniero raffigura invece un uomo alla deriva nell'assurdo, privo di motivazioni per vivere, incapace di giustificare i propri gesti ed emozioni, tanto che arriva a compiere un delitto senza un forte movente, e solo nella sua morte per ghigliottina trova un minimo senso, rappresentando una follia lucida derivante dallo sradicamento dell'uomo, a cui viene a mancare ogni ragione sufficiente a fornire la causa prima di ogni gesto.
La rivolta cozza instancabilmente contro il male, dal quale non le rimane che prendere un nuovo slancio. Dopo L'uomo in rivolta Camus scrisse i racconti L'Esilio e Il regno di cui doveva far parte anche il saggio breve La caduta.
Si adegua ad essi. Tutti portiamo in noi il nostro ergastolo, i nostri delitti e le nostre devastazioni. Notevoli di menzione anche le sue posizioni sulla guerra d'Algeria staccate sia dal terzomondismo dei comunisti sia dal nazionalismo francese della destra , e la demolizione che egli fa della dottrina leninista.
Entrambe, ma soprattutto la prima, saranno la causa dell'allontanamento dal gruppo esistenzialista.
Ritengo invece di non dover sostenere nemmeno per un istante e in alcun modo la costituzione dell'altra Algeria.
Se invece si formasse [ Ecco, molto sinceramente, come la penso. Camus, infatti, mostra anche un forte attaccamento, quasi patriottico , verso l'Algeria:.
L'analisi del filosofo francese parte da Marx stesso, passando per Lenin ed arrivando a Stalin. Fino ad allora l'oppressione, il delitto e la mistificazione saranno legittimati e giustificati in nome di un fine astratto.
Esistono ambizioni che non sono le mie e mi sentirei a disagio se dovessi percorrere la mia strada basandomi sui meschini privilegi che si riservano a chi si adatta all'esistente.
Ma mi sembra che un'altra dovrebbe essere l'ambizione di tutti gli scrittori: testimoniare ed elevare un grido, ogni volta che sia possibile, nei limiti del nostro talento, a favore di coloro che, come noi, sono asserviti.
Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. The car veered off the road into a tree, killing Camus. Learn more. Less than a year after Camus was born, his father, an impoverished worker, was killed in World War I during the First Battle of the Marne.
His mother, of Spanish descent, did housework to support her family. Camus and his elder brother Lucien moved with their mother to a working-class district of Algiers , where all three lived, together with the maternal grandmother and a paralyzed uncle, in a two-room apartment.
Both collections contrast the fragile mortality of human beings with the enduring nature of the physical world. A period of intellectual awakening followed, accompanied by great enthusiasm for sport, especially football soccer , swimming , and boxing.
In , however, the first of several severe attacks of tuberculosis put an end to his sporting career and interrupted his studies.
Camus had to leave the unhealthy apartment that had been his home for 15 years, and, after a short period spent with an uncle, Camus decided to live on his own, supporting himself by a variety of jobs while registered as a philosophy student at the University of Algiers.
At the university, Camus was particularly influenced by one of his teachers, Jean Grenier, who helped him to develop his literary and philosophical ideas and shared his enthusiasm for football.
To regain his health he went to a resort in the French Alps—his first visit to Europe—and eventually returned to Algiers via Florence, Pisa, and Genoa.
Throughout the s, Camus broadened his interests. For a short period in —35 he was also a member of the Algerian Communist Party.